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Educational technology is part of the greater process of instructional design. . In my thesis, decades ago, and in a number of articles I used "educational reform.

The following items should be single-spaced internally but with a blank line between items:. Use tabs rather than spaces for indentation, columns of text, and other content requiring consistent alignment. Block quotations have their own rules for indentation, depending on whether they are prose or poetry. Do not number the title page. Page numbers are usually placed in one of three locations. Choose one of these locations and follow it consistently:. Class papers will either include a title page or will include the title on the first page of the text.

Use the following guidelines to format your title page if your paper includes one:. To see what your paper should look like, check out these sample papers with built-in instructions. Your name and class information should follow several lines later. For subtitles, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the line below the title. Main Body This is the text of your paper.

Chicago Style Format Tutorial

Titles mentioned in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized "headline-style," meaning first words of titles and subtitles and any important words thereafter should be capitalized. Titles in the text as well as in notes and bibliographies are treated with quotation marks or italics based on the type of work they name.

Page index

A prose quotation of 5 or more lines should be "blocked. If the material uploaded to Blackboard was previously published a chapter from a book, an article from a journal , cite the source as you would its original version.

Do not provide the URL to Blackboard. If the material uploaded to Blackboard is original lecture notes or unattributed doesn't give full source information , then cite as much as you can that falls into the who, what, when, where format: author, title, source, date, and URL. Paper Presentation — Footnote Succeeding Notes. Published Proceedings — Footnote Succeeding Notes. Location of Conference, Dates of Conference. References to the Bible and other religious texts are usually referred to in just the footnotes rather than in the footnotes and the bibliography.

References to religious texts should include the book usually abbreviated , chapter, and verse, but not the page number. This is because pagination is often different for different versions. For proper abbreviations for the books see Chicago Manual of Style sec. In the text of your paper, you should spell out the name of the book of the Bible. However, in the footnotes, you can abbreviate the name of the book.

See sec. Formatting the title. In the text of your paper, the names of religious works are capitalized but not put in italics. See Chicago Manual of Style sec. Formatting the reference. Biblical references are given in numeral; chapter and verse are separated by a colon Chicago Manual of Style sec.

The Chicago Manual of Style Online: Search Results

For the Koran, provide surah and verse. Koran Versions of the Bible. Books and numbering are not identical in different versions; it is essential to identify which version is being cited. For general readers, the version should be spelled out, at least for the first occurrence, for specialists, the abbreviation may be used. While the Chicago Manual of Style states that you usually don't need to provide a bibliography entry for religious texts, you may find that some professors require it.


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In those cases, format religious texts the same way you would a book. These are basic examples for citing legal materials; for more information, see the latest edition of The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation 19th ed. Common Abbreviations. Additional Notes:. U69 Located in Concordia Library 1st floor. Use the manual to find citation examples for less often used materials and for information on formatting papers.

Use superscript format and start with the number 1. Place the note number at the end of the clause or sentence that refers to the source and after all punctuation except for dashes —.

Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition

The next time you cite that source, you only need to provide the author's last name, a shortened source title, and the page number where you found the information. If you cite the same source but a different page number , use the word " Ibid " and follow it with a comma and the different page number. Here are the formatting guidelines for the reference list. The reference list should start on a separate page at the end of your paper. Title the page Bibliography , centered at the top no bold, italics, quotation marks, etc.

References should be in a hanging indent format, meaning that the first line of each reference is set flush left and subsequent lines are indented, like this: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Single-space each individual entry, but provide an extra line space between each entry. If there is no author, start with the first significant word in the title. In titles of articles, books, and other sources, capitalize each word, except for articles the, an , prepositions, or conjunctions, unless one is the first word of the title or subtitle.

Footnote Succeeding Notes 2. Connie J. Beck and Bruce D. Beck, Connie J. Washington: APA, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Domino W. Herbert L. Pick, Jr. Washington: APA, , Massaro, Dominic W.

Paper Formatting Basics

Knill, The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed. Stephen F. Arno, Stephen F. Flames in Our Forest: Disaster or Renewal? Washington: Island Press, Glenn R. Schiraldi, Glenn R. New York: McGraw, Kindle edition. Laxdal, Leah Sigrun.

Who Are the Professionals Behind Our Service?

ProQuest MR Amy S. Bruckman, Amy S. Journal — Footnote Succeeding Notes 2. Sangster, Alan, and Giovanna Scataglinibelghitar. Klimoski, Richard, and Susan Palmer. Lev, Baruch. Rapaport, Michael.


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Note that a webpage is a small part of a larger website. Just as chapter and article titles aren't in italics, webpage titles aren't in italics, either. Accessed September 3, Great Websites for Kids. American Library Association. January 24, Mehmood, Zahid.