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Educational technology is part of the greater process of instructional design. . In my thesis, decades ago, and in a number of articles I used "educational reform.


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Alkaline paper has a life expectancy of over 1, years for the best paper and years for average grades. Because there are fewer corrosive chemicals used in making alkaline paper, the process is much easier on the machinery, reducing downtime and maintenance, and extending the machinery's useful life. The process is also significantly more environmentally friendly.

Waste water and byproducts of the papermaking process can be recycled; energy can be saved in the drying and refining process; and alkaline paper can be more easily recycled. The company Hercules Incorporated developed the first alkaline sizing in the s that made acid-free paper possible.

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This voluntary standard covered pH value, tear resistance, alkaline reserve, and lignin thresholds for paper to last thousands of years and was developed to encourage the use of acid-free paper in library materials. There are various standards for "acid-free" paper, with differing requirements.

In some quarters, slightly-acidic paper having a pH between 6 and 7 is often also considered "acid-free". The scope of the standard is to cover publications and documents bought and maintained by libraries and archives. Such works include scholarly journals, periodicals, monographs, government documents, original documents, and significant works in fiction and non-fiction.

An equivalent international standard, ISO , was published in Archival paper is an especially permanent, durable acid-free paper. Archival paper is meant to be used for publications of high legal, historical, or significant value. Often, cotton rag paper is used for archival purposes, as it is not made from wood-based pulp. Thus, "archival paper" is sometimes broken down into two categories:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The graphic-paper market will continue to face declining demand worldwide, and our research has yet to find credible arguments for a specific floor for future demand.

But this decline should be balanced by the increase in demand for packaging—industrial as well as consumer—and tissue products. All in all, demand for fiber-based products is set to increase globally, with some segments growing faster than others Exhibit 4. That picture is not without its uncertainties. One hazy spot in the demand skies might be concerns over how fast demand will grow in China. Expectations of growth from only a few years ago have proved a bit too optimistic, not only in graphic papers but also in tissue papers and packaging.

And recently, as a result of turmoil in the market for recycled fiber, Chinese users of corrugated packaging have reduced their consumption, through weight reductions and use of reusable plastic boxes. Supply movements are notoriously difficult to forecast more than a few years out, but we believe the following observations are relevant to this discussion. But even with a readjustment of the market, the midterm prospects are likely to be in favor of the producers, with little new capacity until —22 and some softwood capacity that is likely to be converted to other products, such as pulp for textile applications.

For softwood particularly, challenges in expanding the forest supply are constraining new supply. The lingering question is whether such supply-side challenges can trigger an accelerated development of applications that are less dependent on wood-fiber pulp. In such an environment, what are the key challenges senior executives will need to address? What are the key battles they will have to fight?

Yet given the confluence of technological changes, demographic changes, and resource concerns that we anticipate over the next decade, we believe the industry will have to embrace change that is, in character, as well as pace, vastly different from what we have seen before—and anything but traditional. This will pose significant challenges for CEOs regarding how they manage their companies.

We argue that there are three broad themes that paper and forest-products CEOs will have to address through and beyond:. The past couple of years have seen increased instability in forest-products segments. The negative impact of digital communications on graphic paper has led many companies to steer away from the segment and into higher-growth areas, either through conversion of machines or through redirection of investment funds.

This is leading to a higher level of uncertainty and overcapacity in, for example, packaging grades. The instability has also been exacerbated by the capacity additions that primarily Asian producers have made despite the slowing demand growth in that region. A case in point is virgin-fiber cartonboard. Several producers in Europe have converted machines away from graphic paper and into this segment, creating further oversupply in Europe and leading producers to redouble their efforts to sell to export markets.

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This is happening just as increasing capacity in Asia, and particularly in China, looks set to displace imports that have traditionally come into the region, mainly from Europe and North America. Some of the new Asian capacity could even find its way into export markets. This development is likely to persist for several years until markets again find more of an equilibrium, and it poses challenging questions for companies.

What, if any, safe havens exist for my products? How do I protect home-market volumes? How do I protect my export volumes? What is the appropriate pricing strategy to use in the different regions? For CEOs looking to move into a new market segment, it will be equally important to make the right assessment of which segments to enter as they shift their footing.

Where will I be the most competitive? How will my entry change market dynamics, and will this matter to me? If that might seem to trend toward stabilization, the situation in recycled fibers is still very uncertain. As China, and gradually other Asian countries, have increasingly restricted the import of recovered fiber as well as plastics and other recovered materials , the dynamics have shifted. While prices of old corrugated containers OCC and other papers for recycling have plummeted in North America and Europe, prices of domestic Chinese OCC have increased drastically, challenging both the price and availability of recycled-based corrugated board.

In response, companies have set up capacity to produce recycled-fiber pulp to export to China, while the country is jacking up its import of containerboard for corrugated packaging, as well as virgin fiber for strengthening purposes. This of course affects how companies, in any country, think about their fiber-supply strategies as well as their product focus. Even though we see new ways of creating value in the forest-products industry, low cost is, and will remain, a critical factor for high financial performance.

One of the characteristics shared by companies with high margins and high returns is that they have access to low-cost raw materials, primarily fiber. This will continue to be a high-priority area, albeit with some twists compared with today. Beyond the price increases of the past couple of years, fresh fiber is facing other, more long-term, cost issues.

It is unclear whether plantation land in the southern hemisphere primarily for short-fiber wood will continue to be available at current low prices. And as companies go to more remote areas to acquire inexpensive land, such as in Brazil, their infrastructure and logistics costs increase.

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Will higher productivity and yield allow the global industry to add ever more low-cost capacity, or are we going to see a gradual increase in raw-material costs? For long-fiber products, the difficulties to expand long-fiber pulp capacity will make such assets very valuable over the next several years. But at what point will development of the material properties of short-fiber pulps make them rival more expensive long-fiber pulps in a number of major applications?

Operating costs for paper and board production are another area where companies need to get a tighter grip. Despite the fact that this area receives continual focus from management, our experience suggests there is still significant potential for cost reduction by using conventional approaches to work smarter and reduce waste in the production chain. Translation of your manuscript from Chinese, Portuguese, Spanish, or Japanese into publication-quality English. Reputation is important in the research community. World-class publishers like Springer Nature trust AJE to deliver high-quality English editing and manuscript preparation services to their authors.

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